The Berlin Plus Agreement is the summary title of a comprehensive set of agreements concluded between NATO and the EU on 16 December 2002.  These agreements were based on the conclusions of the 1999 NATO summit in Washington, sometimes referred to as the CJTF mechanism, and allowed the EU to use some of NATO`s military means in its own peacekeeping operations. Since the Berlin Plus agreement in 2003, circumstances have changed dramatically. But in recent times, old debates have resurfaced, showing that the friction that caused Berlin Plus to react persists. Calls from the US for an increase in EUROPEAN defence spending are more urgent, but its reaction to proposals on EU military capabilities and autonomy reflects suspicions of the past. There is one part of EU thinking that mistakenly views Berlin Plus as obsolete and is part of an earlier era of NATO-EU cooperation, where the EU was more dependent than comparable to NATO on security. So far, the EU, with nato support, has conducted two operations: Anna Wieslander, Northern Europe Director for the Atlantic Council, says sweden`s approach to European defence is heavily focused on crisis management outside the area and civilian priorities, without arguing over the military side of cooperation. . . .