Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an «Annex 1» country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases. [91] In order to «significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change,» the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while continuing efforts to limit the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also calls on countries to commit as quickly as possible to comparing global greenhouse gas emissions and to become carbon neutral by the second half of this century. To achieve these goals, 186 countries – responsible for more than 90% of global emissions – presented CO2 reduction targets prior to the Paris conference, known as «determined national contributions» (INDC). These targets set out the commitments made by each country to reduce emissions until 2025 or 2030, including macroeconomic targets for co2 reduction and individual commitments of some 2,250 cities and 2,025 companies. The Environment Council has adopted conclusions that define the EU`s position for the UN climate change conference to be held in Paris. Ministers agreed that the EU intends to reach an ambitious, legally binding and dynamic agreement to keep global warming below 2oC. How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker [95] and the climate clock). As soon as the European Parliament gives the go-ahead, the closing decision will be formally adopted by the Council.

The EU will then be able to ratify the agreement. INDE has addressed the challenges of eradicating poverty while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. About 24% of the world`s population without access to electricity (304 million) lived in India. Nevertheless, the country planned to «reduce the intensity of its GDP emissions by 33-35% by 2030» from 2005 levels. The country has also attempted to buy about 40% of its electricity from renewable energy sources, not fossil fuels by 2030. INDC found that implementation plans would not be affordable from national resources: it estimated that it would take at least $2.5 trillion to implement climate change measures by 2030. India would achieve this through the transfer of technology (transfer of capacity and equipment from the most developed countries to less developed countries [LDCs]) and international funding, including support from the Green Climate Fund (an end-to-end investment support program in low-emission technologies and the development of populations vulnerable to the effects of climate change). A new theme that has proved to be the centre of gravity of the Paris negotiations[55] was born out of the fact that many of the worst effects of climate change will be too severe or will come too quickly to be avoided by adaptation measures. The Paris Agreement explicitly recognizes the need to repair such losses and damages and seeks to find appropriate responses. [56] It is specified that losses and damage can take different forms, both as immediate effects of extreme weather events and as slow effects, such as land loss at sea level for deep islands.

[33] Countries are also working to reach «the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions» as soon as possible.